An essay on effects of cyclone on weather

In Fig.

Impact of Tropical Cyclones

These additional losses are shown in the production layers that follow. As shown in Fig. The combined sectoral and regional spillovers are therefore significant.

Affected countries

While the coastal areas of northern Queensland, Mackay, Fitzroy, Brisbane in South Queensland and northern New South Wales Richmond—Tweed area were affected immediately by storm and flood damage, repercussions were subsequently felt in the rest of the affected regions and later on within the rest of Australia. Losses in value added and employment cascaded throughout inter-regional supply chains, as subsequent transactions were cancelled.

Shortfalls were noticeable even by distant suppliers, removed from directly affected producers by four or more transaction nodes Fig. Each line represents one of the 34 industries in each region, in the sequence order listed in Sect. Region acronyms as in Fig. See also Sect. Our production layer assessment reveals the employment and value-added losses in different layers of production.

Each of these layers are comprised of a range of industries. It is important to identify the industries affected in different layers of production. Our assessment shows that while only a selected number of industries and regions were directly affected by the storm and flooding coal, tourism, sugar cane, road transport, vegetable growing; black stripes in Fig.

We further analysed the losses in different layers of production Fig. In the Richmond—Tweed area of New South Wales, jobs were affected directly in accommodation, cafes and restaurants, and about indirectly in other industries and regions due to supply-chain effects spillover. Similar effects are observed in Mackay and Brisbane in Queensland. The temporary coal mine shutdown in Mackay and Fitzroy affected as many jobs indirectly as directly.


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Damaged and closed roads affected road transport establishments and almost equally the industries that depended on them. Analysis of the impacts of disasters, such as that undertaken in this paper, can have constructive uptake by informing disaster recovery plans as well as regional plans more generally.

IGEM, Consideration of the large indirect impacts identified in this article would help to improve future planning while recognising that only part of the impacts of the cyclone have been considered, and that wider analysis of positive and downstream impacts would be beneficial as suggested by Oosterhaven However, this impact is currently not mentioned in disaster recovery planning documents.

In this work, we have focused on losses of employment and value added, because these are currently of immediate importance for governments, insurers and the media.

NHESS - Economic damage and spillovers from a tropical cyclone

Future work could investigate possibilities for restructuring the geography of production and supply-chain networks with the aim of finding more disaster-resilient configurations. In addition, there are variants of IO analytical methods that allow optimal recovery paths to be established Koks et al.

Future work could also consider the effects of cyclones beyond national borders. The disruptions of coal exports due to Tropical Cyclone Debbie, for example, caused bottlenecks in Indian and Chinese steel mills The Barrel, , and during the aftermath of the storm, steel producers were looking for alternative sources of coal such as Russia, Mongolia or Mozambique Serapio, Such trade relationships can be taken into account using nested, multi-scale, global multi-region IO frameworks Bachmann et al.

Our approach can be applied to other regions and ultimately extended to include impacts well beyond employment and value added, such as wider environmental or social consequences of disasters. The IELab already has many satellite accounts and is being expanded to assess broader environmental and social flow-on effects.

Powerful tropical cyclones have the ability to cause severe disruptions of economic production that are felt far beyond the areas of landfall and flooding. Here, we used an IO-based analytical tool for enumerating the post-disaster consumption possibilities and ensuing direct and indirect losses of employment and value added as a consequence of the Tropical Cyclone Debbie that hit the Queensland regions of Australia in March and April Our results from this Australian case study suggest that Cyclone Debbie caused substantial damage to spill over into regions and sectors not directly affected: industries directly hit by the cyclone suffered approximately job losses, but some jobs were affected in these industries' upstream supply chains.

These findings demonstrate that the full supply-chain effects of major disruptions on national economies are significant, and that this type of study will become increasingly important in a future likely to be fraught with extreme weather events, as the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones increase as a result of climate change Mendelsohn et al.

This work demonstrates rapid analysis of the wide indirect impacts of Cyclone Debbie. It shows how significant consequences can be felt as spillovers in regions well outside the landfall and flood zones caused by the cyclone. Our work suggests that improved planning could help account for these impacts, minimise them in future and thereby help transition the affected economies towards greater resilience. The authors thank Sebastian Juraszek for expertly managing the Global IELab's advanced computation requirements, and Charlotte Jarabak for help with collecting data.

Edited by: Bruno Merz Reviewed by: two anonymous referees. Alsamawi, A. Anderson, C. Bachmann, C. Brown, V. Cannon, T. Cole, S. Crisis Man. Donaghy, K. Geschke, A. Guimaraes, P.

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