Steps to writing an apa research paper

Do not underline, bold, or italicize the title. Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length. The institutional affiliation is the location where the author conducted the research Sample Title page: Abstract On the following page, begin with the Running title. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research.

Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. Start with the Running title On the next line write the title do not bold, underline, or italicize the title Begin with the introduction.


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The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract. Begin a new section with the Method.

Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style

Bold and center this subtitle The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected. Begin a new section with the Results. Bold and center this subtitle. The Results section summarizes the data. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to the references page in APA format:.

Try it out! Use EasyBib. Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper. Using Biometrics to Evaluate Visual Design. Northern California Valley State University. Additionally, perceived web quality, which encompasses visual design, has a positive relationship with both initial and continued consumer purchase intention.


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However, visual design is often assessed using self-report scale, which are vulnerable to a few pitfalls. Because self-report questionnaires are often reliant on introspection and honesty, it is difficult to confidently rely on self-report questionnaires to make important decisions. This study aims to ensure the validity of a visual design assessment instrument Visual Aesthetics of Websites Inventory: Short version by examining its relationship with biometric variables , like galvanic skin response, pupillometry, and fixation information.

Overall, we found that both average fixation duration and pupil dilation differed when participants viewed web pages with lower visual design ratings compared to web pages with a higher visual design rating. Keywords : usability, visual design, websites, eye tracking, pupillometry, self-report, VisAWI.

In the literature, visual design is one aspect of website quality. They further examined the impact web quality and retail brand trust has on purchase intentions. Although this research spans various domains, the reliance on self-report measures to gauge concepts like visual design and web quality is prevalent throughout much of the literature. Although some self-report scales are validated within the literature , there are still issues with the use of self-report questionnaires.

One is the reliance on the honesty of the participant. This tends to be more of an issue in studies related to questionnaires that measure characteristics. More relevant to this study is the issue of introspection and memory. Surveys are often distributed after a task is completed, and its accuracy is dependent on the ability of the participant to remember their experience during the study.

Multiple research studies have shown that human memory is far from static. This can be dangerous if a researcher chooses to solely rely on self-report methods to test a hypothesis.

We believe these self-report methods in tandem with biometric methods can help ensure the validity of the questionnaires, and provide information beyond the scope of self-report scales. We know from previous research that the quality of websites mediates many aspects of e-commerce, and provides insight as to how consumers view the webpages in general. Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits.

Using both can potentially identify patterns amongst the biometric measures and the questionnaire, which would strengthen the validity of the results. More so, the eye tracking data has the potential to identify patterns amongst websites of lower or higher quality. If found, these patterns can be used to evaluate particular aspects of a page that are impacting the quality of a webpage. Overall, we are interested in answering two questions:.

Research Question 1 : Can attitudinal changes regarding substantial website redesigns be captured using biometric measures? Research Question 2 : How do biometric measures correlate with self-reported measures of visual appeal? Answering these questions has the potential to provide a method of justification for design changes, ranging from minor tweak to complete rebrands. There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions.


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A method for doing so would help companies evaluate visual designs before implementation in order to cost-justify them. To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement. During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions limited by errors in initial study configuration , pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit.

This data was analyzed, in Table 2, to discover relationships between the independent and dependent variables, as well as relationships between certain dependent variables. Jones, C. Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies , 34 6 , — Kuan, H.

Comparing the effects of website quality on customer initial purchase and continued purchase at e-commerce websites. Lin, H. The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Stojmenovic, M. Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. Diversity The layout is pleasantly varied. Difference p Joy Kitchen 3. Final Checklist Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:. Congratulations for making it this far! Most cover letters ask you to include:.

Can we offer one last suggestion? We promise it will only take a minute. Consider running your paper through our handy dandy paper checker. Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Social sciences can include: Sociology Anthropology Economics Political Science Human Geography Archaeology Linguistics Many other fields and subject areas regularly use this style too.

Information related to writing and organizing your paper: Paper and essay categories General paper length Margin sizes Title pages Running Heads — How to format running heads, with samples Preparing APA format outlines How to form an abstract The body of most scientific papers Proper usage of APA format headings and subheadings Use of graphics tables and figures B. Complete sample paper E.

The structure of an APA research paper – JEPS Bulletin

Final checklist F. Writing and Organizing Your Paper in an Effective Way This section of our guide focuses on proper paper length, how to format headings, spacing, and more! Categories of papers Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports.

The purpose is to gather information about a current issue or problem and to communicate where we are today.

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It sheds light on issues and attempts to fill those gaps with suggestions for future research and methods. It is different from literature reviews in that it attempts to explain or solve a problem by coming up with a new theory. This theory is justified with valid evidence. Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure. The author has data or documentation to prove that their new method, or improvement to a method, is valid. Plenty of evidence is included in this type of article.

In addition, the author explains the current method being used in addition to their own findings, in order to allow the reader to understand and modify their own current practices. Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals.