The differential associations that job satisfactions and organizational commitment have with job performance and turnover intentions were studied by McFarlane Shore and Martin in a sample of bank tellers and hospital professionals. Results showed that organizational commitment was more strongly related than job satisfaction with turnover intentions for the tellers, but for the professionals.
Job satisfaction was related more strongly than organization commitment with supervisory ratings of performance for both samples. The findings suggested that specific job attitudes are more closely associated with task-related outcomes such as performance ratings, whereas global organizational attitudes are more closely associated with organizational-related outcomes like turnover intentions.
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The study by Judge, Heller and Mount reported results of a meta-analysis linking traits from the 5-factor model of personality to overall job satisfaction. Using the model as an organizing framework, correlations from independent samples were classified according to the model. The estimated true score correlations with job satisfaction were -. Results further indicated that only the relations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with job satisfaction generalized across studies. As a set, the Big Five traits had a multiple correlation of.
In a survey by Hunt and Saul of white collar workers, age and tenure had positive, linear relationships to overall job satisfaction. Age had a stronger relationship with satisfaction in males than tenure; the reverse held for females. The article by Saari and Judge identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular'job satisfaction: 1 the causes of employee attitudes, 2 the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and 3 how to measure and influence employee attitudes.
Suggestions for practitioners were provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating implemented practices. The article by Rice, Near and Hunt reviewed empirical research that relates satisfaction with work to satisfaction with life. The magnitude of the reported zero-order relationship between job satisfaction and overall life satisfaction was typically modest, with correlations mostly in the mid-.
Two studies were designed by Farrell and Rusbult to explore the ability of the investment model to predict job satisfaction, job commitment, and job turnover. The first study was a controlled laboratory analog of a work setting, and the second study was a cross-sectional survey of industrial workers. The results of the two studies were consistent. Job satisfaction was best predicted by the reward and cost values of the job, and job commitment was best predicted by a combination of reward and cost values, alternative value, and investment size.
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Both satisfaction and commitment were correlated with job turnover, but job commitment was more strongly related to turnover than was satisfaction. These results were in complete agreement with the investment model. The article by Judge and Bono presented meta-analytic results of the relationship of 4 traits'self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability low neuroticism 'with job satisfaction and job performance.
With respect to job satisfaction, the estimated true score correlations were. With respect to job performance, the correlations were. In total, the results based on correlations suggested that these traits are among the best dispositional predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. It is widely believed that the employee participation may affect employee's job satisfaction; employee productivity, employee commitment and they all can create comparative advantage for the organization.
The main intention of the study by Bhatti and Qureshi was to find out relationship among employee participation, job satisfaction, employee productivity and employee commitment. The findings of this study were that employee participation is an important determinant of job satisfaction components. Increasing employee participation will have a positive effect on employee's job satisfaction, employee commitment and employee productivity.
Naturally increasing employee participation is a long-term process, which demands both attention from management side and initiative from the employee side. H1: There is significant relationship between psychological contract and job satisfaction. Descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to the research.
Experimental research determines the relationship between two variables by keeping one variable dependent on the independent variable. Secondary data collected from journals, research papers, books and websites. Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. The selection of sampling units is left primarily to the interviewer. Often respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. It is the least expensive and least time consuming and is easy to measure.
The reliability of psychological contract and job satisfaction was calculated. Also, mean and standard deviation of all the parameters was calculated and correlation has been applied.
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Finally, the correlation and regression of psychological contract and job satisfaction is calculated through SPSS and the results of it are as below. This indicates a high level of internal consistency for our scale with this specific sample. Table 4. Standard deviation 0. Correlation is significant at the 0.
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This means that changes in one variable are strongly correlated with changes in the second variable. A positive pearson correlation means that as one variable increases in value, the second variable also increase in value. Similarly, as one variable decreases in value, the second variable also decreases in value. This is called a positive correlation.
The Sig 2-Tailed value. That means, increases or decreases in one variable do significantly relate to increases or decreases in the second variable. Error of the Estimate 1. There is significant relationship between psychological contract and job satisfaction. There are no written promises between the two parties. The parameters used in the psychological contract questionnaire are divided into two parts, employee obligations and employer obligations.
There are 8 same parameters each for employee and employer obligations, short-term obligation, loyalty, narrowness, performance support, development, external marketability, stability and psychological contract fulfillment. Job satisfaction is the level of contentment an employee has for his job. When the expectations of an employee from employer and organization get fulfilled, the employee feels a part of the organization and more satisfied.
The parameters used for measuring job satisfaction with the help of questionnaires are, general working conditions, pay and promotion potential, work relationships, use of skills and abilities and work activities. The stronger the contract between the employee and the employer more satisfied the employee feels in the organization. Psychological contracts serve an important purpose when honored by both parties: When both parties honor the psychological contract, a bond of loyalty is formed between the two.
When the employee shows that he is willing to put in as much work as he implied and the boss' expectations prove fair, both parties will go out of their way to maintain this positive relationship. The ability to perceive one another as human beings and being empathetic can make a big difference. A productive psychological contract depends on the employer's ability to occasionally let an employee's shortcomings slide, which will then result in the employee returning the favor. When trust has been established through the psychological contract, it makes it easier for both parties to exhibit openness and honesty.
When neither the employee nor the boss fear the possibility of betrayal, it is easier for each to open up about personal needs, frustrations or experiences. This allows each to respond in a healthy, productive manner. When the terms of the psychological contract are honored, all aspects of the working relationship should run more smoothly.
This greater degree of trust, respect and understanding can lead to a positive, healthy relationship, a workplace that is run in a more efficient manner and a greater degree of job satisfaction by both parties. Greater enthusiasm for the job and higher morale go hand in hand, and may feed positively into all other areas of the job.
There may be slight variations in the accuracy of the results. There should be open communication and transparency in the organization. Journal of Marketing, Vol.
Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, Academy of Management Journal, Volume 18, Number 4, Multiple types of psychological contracts: A six-cluster solution. Human Relations, 56 11 : ' Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. The effect of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment- A cross-national comparison.
Journal of Management Development, Vol. III and Porter, L. The Effect of Performance on Job Satisfaction. Industrial Relations, pp. Human Relations, Volume 42, Number 7, pp.
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Psychological Contract and Employment Relationship. Basic And Applied Social Psychology, 1 1. New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. Psychological and implied contracts in organizations.
Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2, The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15, Employee Attitudes And Job Satisfaction. Human Resource Management, Job Satisfaction in Organizational Executives.
Managing the career deal: The psychological contract as a framework for understanding career management, organizational commitment and work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, ' A longitudinal study of the relationship between career management and organizational commitment among graduates in the first ten years at work.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, ' Psychological contract and job outcomes: mediating role of affective commitment. African Journal of Business Management, 5 19 , pp. Business Week Exchange and power in social life: New York: Wiley. London: Nicholas Brealey.
Contracts, Little, Brown, Boston. Research report.