Do not confuse quotations with citations. A citation is the practice of referring to the work of other authors in the text of your assignments. A direct quotation is where you copy the exact words used by an author and place them unaltered directly into your work. Direct quotations need to be in quotation marks as shown in the example here. Treatments for cancer "can disrupt economic, social and sexual functioning and frequently cause anxiety and depression, thus diminishing quality of life" Fallowfield, , p. NOTE: Always put quotation marks around a direct quote and include the page number.
How to punctuate quotations in an essay - BBC Bitesize
Remember, direct quotes should only be used to illustrate a specific point or view. In most cases it is preferable to present information in your own words. Discuss, with particular reference to the position of the exclamation mark, the comma and the full stop. Readers on both sides of the Atlantic tend to get excited when this and similar blogs touch on the differences between British and American English.
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My last blogpost on the subject attracted comments, a record. Both sides are understandably protective of their version of the language, so it was a pleasant surprise to find Ben Yagoda of Slate praising the "logical punctuation" that we are said to use in the UK.
Specifically, he notes a "punctuation paradigm shift" away from the traditional US practice of placing commas and full points periods inside quotation marks. He calls moving the punctuation to the right of the quotation marks "the British style", which "rules on message and bulletin boards".
Jolly good. But wait. We are only too happy to bask in such praise but is it really a simple choice between "the British style" and "the American way"? A trawl through the style guides suggests things are a little more complex than that. Yagoda argues that a quotation is a unit, consisting of the words and the quotation marks, and that "insinuating a period or comma within the unit alters it in a rather underhanded [sic] manner". The Radio Times stylebook argues, similarly, that the punctuation goes inside the final quotation mark "only if it actually forms part of the quotation", citing the sentence "Everything in the garden is lovely," as a complete unit with its own closing punctuation.
All very well, but its suggestion of "Lovely garden", with comma outside the quote because it is a somehow incomplete quotation, raises the question: why, exactly, is it incomplete?
Q. How do I insert quotations into my law essay using the OSCOLA referencing style?
The Guardian style guide , which reflects widespread practice in the UK, says:. Place full points and commas inside the quotes for a complete quoted sentence; otherwise the point comes outside -. You will note that the first example conforms to American usage. The second example — what Yagoda calls "the British style" — applies only when part of a quotation is given a practice we try to discourage, as it makes it look as if the reporter has had a shorthand malfunction and failed to write down the whole thing.
When beginning a quote with a sentence fragment that is followed by a full sentence, punctuate according to the final part of the quote -. The minister called the allegations "blatant lies. But in a position such as mine, it is only to be expected.
But in a position such as mine, it is only to be expected". Wikipedia, which claims to bat for Britain on this subject, gives the following misleading advice:.
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